Spring Forward: March 11, 2018: Tips and Tricks to Ease the Transition.
All evidence is now confirming that all sleep coaching methods and interventions work to improve sleep. The studies have validated that there are no concerning levels of stress and cortisol. The studies have also confirmed that there are no negative long-term outcomes. This is great news because it now gives parents freedom to choose the RIGHT METHODOLOGY FOR THEIR PARENTING STYLE AND VALUES. I personally prefer Gentle Sleep Coaching, which is also known as the Sleep Lady Shuffle or also known as Fading. Gentle Sleep Coaching is a proven methodology that offers parents the opportunity to be in the room with their child while offering verbal and physical assurances. Gentle Sleep Coaching has been proven to minimize tears and frustration. Gentle Sleep Coaching provides substantial Parent Education and insight into the temperament of their child and how that relates to sleep. Peaceful Nights are Possible with the expertise of Joanna Clark of Blissful Baby Sleep Coaching, a trained and certified Gentle Sleep Coach. Below is an article form Aaron Carrroll, Professor of Pediatrics at Indiana University School of Medicine that further explains the different sleep training methodologies and options.
Putting Your Baby to Sleep: Some Advice and Good News
Aaron E. Carroll is a professor of pediatrics at Indiana University School of Medicine who blogs on health research.
For many new parents, a baby who sleeps peacefully through the night is more aspiration than reality.
I remember thinking, after my pregnant wife’s water broke minutes after I went to bed, anguishing really, over one thought as we drove to the hospital: “I’m never going to be well rested again.”
If there’s one thing all new parents wish for, it’s a good night’s sleep.
Unfortunately, infants sometimes make that impossible. They wake up repeatedly, needing to be fed, changed and comforted. Eventually, they reach an age when they should sleep through the night. Some don’t, though. What to do with them continues to be a topic of a heated debate in parenting circles.
One camp believes that babies should be left to cry it out. These people place babies in their cribs at a certain time, after a certain routine, and don’t interfere until the next morning. No matter how much the babies scream or cry, parents ignore them. After all, if babies learn that tantrums lead to the appearance of a loved one, they will continue that behavior in the future. The official name for this approach is “Extinction.”
The downside, of course, is that it’s unbelievably stressful for parents. Many can’t do it. And not holding fast to the plan can make everything worse. Responding to an infant’s crying after an extended period of time makes the behavior harder to extinguish. To a baby, it’s like a slot machine that hits just as you’re ready to walk away; it makes you want to play more.
A modification of this strategy is known as “Graduated Extinction.” Parents allow their infant to cry it out for a longer period each night, until infants eventually put themselves to sleep. On the first night, for instance, parents might commit to not entering the baby’s room for five minutes. The next night, 10 minutes. Then 15, and so on. Or, they could increase the increments on progressive checks each night. When they do go in the room, it’s only to check and make sure the baby is O.K. — no picking up or comforting. This isn’t meant to be a reward for crying, but to allow parents to be assured that nothing is wrong
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Another choice is “Bedtime Fading.” The point of this plan is to teach your children how to fall asleep on their own at bedtime, in the hope that if they develop this skill, when they wake up in the middle of the night they’ll choose to employ it rather than call for you. With fading, you temporarily set bedtime later than usual and preface it with a good bedtime routine. Your babies learn that bedtime is fun, and have little trouble falling asleep because they’re more tired than usual. Then you move their bedtime earlier and earlier, so that infants learn how to put themselves to sleep when they are less and less tired.
A fourth method is “Scheduled Awakenings.” In this method, a parent tries to disrupt spontaneous awakening by getting up in the middle of the night to wake children 15 to 30 minutes before they usually wake up on their own. They then help the baby fall back asleep. The scheduled awakenings are later phased out.
Of course, even with fading and scheduled awakenings, it’s possible that your baby will wake up in the middle of the night, screaming. Then you face a choice: Go to them or wait it out?
Some people always choose to comfort the child. They think that making a baby cry it out is inhumane and could even lead to psychological problems. Others feel that giving in to babies prevents them from learning needed skills and leads to later problems.
A final thing doctors can do is “Parental Education,” which is closer to prevention. It involves talking to parents about many of these options, especially training infants to fall asleep on their own, before problems develop.
As a pediatrician, the first thing I do with parents who are experiencing problems is calm them down. Sometimes it feels as if it will never go away, but I try to remind them that few teenagers have this issue. They go to bed fine, and if they wake up in the middle of the night, they go back to sleep without anyone’s help. This almost always, eventually, gets better.
On the other hand, I don’t want to minimize the short-term problems for parents. Nor do I want to do nothing. Sleep deprivation leads to significant and serious consequences in adults. A 2008 study published in Pediatrics found that mothers of infants with sleep problems, in which no intervention was tried, were more likely to report symptoms of clinical depression when their child was 2 years old. Sleep problems also lead to significant parental stress, and, potentially, physical punishment.
The good news is that almost all interventions work. In 2006, a systematic review was published in the journal Sleep that examined all the relevant research on the efficacy of these interventions. Ninety-four percent of the 52 reviewed studies found that the interventions led to improved sleep, and more than 80 percent of children who were treated improved significantly.
The strongest evidence supported the extinction method and parent education (i.e., prevention). Still, there was evidence that also supported the graduated extinction, fading and scheduled awakenings methods.
People become surprisingly heated about which method to use. This isn’t just because they think one works better than the other, but also because they think some are harmful. They worry about the long-term effects of some methods. Those concerns may be overblown, though. A small study published recently followed children who were randomly sorted to use graduated extinction, fading or parent education. Besides looking at the effectiveness of the intervention on sleep, researchers measured the cortisol hormone in infants’ saliva (as a measure of stress) as well as mothers’ moods and stress.
Again, all of the interventions worked to improve sleep. More important, none caused any concerning levels of stress. This confirmed the findings of two previous studies that found that infant sleep problems, and the interventions used to remedy them, do not predict long-term outcomes, even at 6 years of age.
Parents become stressed about infants who don’t sleep well. That’s understandable. What they don’t need to stress about is that fixing it will cause more harm or have long-term negative consequences. A good night’s sleep makes almost everything better.
Aaron E. Carroll is a professor of pediatrics at Indiana University School of Medicine who blogs on health research and policy at The Incidental Economist and makes videos at Healthcare Triage. Follow him on Twitter at @aaronecarroll.
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If you grew up popping Flintstones vitamins like most of us did, you might think that of course it’s a good idea to take a multivitamin every day. That’s just what healthy people do, right?
Kind of. “You really cannot supplement your way out of an unhealthy diet,” says Robin Foroutan, a registered dietitian nutritionist and spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. If you’re eating a diet that includes grains, lots of leafy vegetables, a wide variety of brightly colored fruit, and lean meats, you probably don’t need to take a multivitamin at all.
But Foroutan says she sometimes advises her clients to take one, especially if their diets lack important nutrients. If your meals are more Guy Fieri than Jamie Oliver, try MegaFood Women’s One Daily or MegaFood Multi for Men. MegaFood gets high marks from third-party certifiers, offers remarkable transparency in an industry not known for it (you can literally watch a live stream of its New Hampshire facilities), and limits its inactive filler ingredients to three — by far the lowest we’ve seen. Most notably, both formulas are derived entirely from real food sources, which is a big plus for some. The one downside? They’re expensive.
Our budget pick, Costco’s synthetic Kirkland Signature Daily Multi, also received high marks from third parties and is much cheaper — only 2 cents per serving. The biggest difference: its nutrients are derived entirely from synthetic sources. Science hasn’t proven synthetics to be better or worse than their natural counterparts, so if you don’t feel strongly one way or the other, we think Kirkland Signature is a great way to go. (It also includes calcium and potassium, which MegaFood lacks.)
For kids, our favorite was Rainbow Light Kid's One MultiStars. Each crunchy, star-shaped tablet contains the same essential nutrients we looked for in our adult picks, at child-friendly doses. This supplement is food-based, and free of the fillers and artificial dyes we saw in many other kids’ formulas. The brand came highly recommended by our experts and is intended for children of all ages.
Older adults have slightly different dietary requirements, often needing higher levels of vitamins like B12 and D. For this category, we suggest Kirkland Signature Adults 50+ Mature Multi — a synthetic formula that hit our nutritional benchmarks for older adults and is quite affordable at just $0.03 per dose.
All that said, the amounts of nutrients included in all our top picks vary — as will the amounts you need to be your healthiest. It’s important to consult with your doctor to determine if you have any vitamin deficiencies (usually via blood test) and what amounts you might require to get back up to speed. If it’s a severe deficiency, your doctor will likely recommend or prescribe a supplement for whichever specific nutrients you lack. Only mild deficiencies can be ameliorated by a multivitamin.
We started out with enough options to fill an entire aisle at your friendly neighborhood supplement store: 289 varieties of tablets, capsules, gummies, chewables, and liquids. Our goal was to find which ones were the safest and most effective to take.
Immediately, we ditched anything with a “proprietary blend.”
If you’re consuming a tablet or capsule every day, you better know exactly what’s in it, and how much. Unlike pharmaceuticals, supplements aren’t submitted for FDA testing and approval before they go to market. The FDA does require that manufacturers disclose all supplement ingredients and detail the amounts per serving — unless it’s classified as a “proprietary blend.” In that case, the manufacturer doesn’t have to disclose anything besides a list of ingredients and the total amount in the bottle.
This kind of disclosure loophole originated to protect businesses with unique products from being copied by competitors, but it’s also a convenient way for manufacturers to skimp on amounts or use inferior ingredients. Worse, buyers could end up consuming a product with too much of one ingredient — even an herbal add-in — which can pose health hazards. (For example, seemingly harmless herbs such as licorice and ginseng have been tied to high blood pressure.)
Contenders cut: 154
Then, we cut products that didn’t have credible third-party verification.
Without FDA oversight, the supplement industry is a bit like the Wild West of the wellness world. Journalist Catherine Price researched the supplement industry while writing her book Vitamania: How Vitamins Revolutionized the Way We Think About Food, and she told us if there’s one thing consumers should know, it’s this:
Dietary supplements are not tested for safety or for effectiveness before being sold. The motto of the industry should be caveat emptor: buyer beware.
So we sought out a few sheriffs to establish some accountability. There are a handful of labs that test supplements to evaluate whether they actually contain what the label promises, and we cut all multivitamins that weren’t approved by or compliant with at least one of the following:
- NSF International
- United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
- Labdoor (We looked for at least a 60 out 100 score, which represents a minimum blanace of label accuracy, product purity, and nutritional value. Find out more about Labdoor’s grading system.)
NSF and USP (both nonprofit organizations) test supplements at the request of manufacturers, then lend stamps of approval to verified products’ packaging. Labdoor and ConsumerLab, both for-profit companies, seek out products to test without consent from manufacturers. (Manufacturers can request tests from ConsumerLab as well.)
We also looked for products that were in compliance with the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) system of in-house testing. This international non-governmental organization lays out a rigorous system of testing for quality management for any product; MegaFood, the manufacturer of our top picks, is in compliance with that system. It’s not an independent certification, but it usually demonstrates that a company cares about quality assurance and wants the public to know.
Contenders cut: 102
Then we drilled down on inactive ingredients.
“Inactive ingredients” is a blanket term for everything included in the pill that isn’t adding nutritional value. Typically, a short list of inactive ingredients is a good sign of quality — our top picks from MegaFood have just three.
We looked for formulas that limited their use of artificial sweeteners, including sucralose, dextrose, maltodextrin, xylitol, glucose syrup, aspartame, and high fructose corn syrup.
In that same spirit, we wanted to avoid partially hydrogenated oils and artificial colorants as much as possible. We also kept an eye out for fillers and binders that are probably safe in small doses — but why consume them if there are better options? Those included titanium dioxide, carmine, butylated hydroxytoluene, benzoic acid, PEG 3350, talc, and magnesium silicate.
And examined labels for a good blend of nutrients.
When it comes to nutrition, “the most important thing is eating a balanced diet with nutrient-rich foods, and then supplementing to fill missing gaps,” said Sharon Palmer, a registered dietitian nutritionist and author of Plant-Powered for Life. “If your diet is pretty good, it might not really be necessary — maybe supplement a few times a week if you’re really concerned about shortfalls.”
To figure out what those shortfalls could be, we turned to the FDA’s dietary guidelines. Out of the 27 nutrients the body needs, the FDA states that American adults are most likely to be at risk of not consuming enough calcium, potassium, or magnesium — as well as vitamins A, C, and E.
It was a solid wish list, but very few multivitamins contain significant amounts of everything. “Multis don’t typically contain 100 percent of what you need, as the pill would just be too large,” Palmer told us — and in fact, we even had trouble finding a good option that included all those key “at-risk” nutrients, particularly potassium and calcium.
It’s understandable: there’s no way one supplement could magically cover all the bases for all people. So to make our top picks, we analyzed our remaining list of 33 multivitamins, looking for the ones that featured the fewest inactive ingredients, the best third-party certifications, and the most well-rounded roster of nutrients.
A quick word on multivitamins for men and women
Generally, men’s and women’s blends contain largely the same basic nutrients. The biggest difference is that most supplements aimed at pre-menopausal women contain more iron, calcium, or both. There’s no inherent danger in taking a multivitamin that’s marketed for a different sex, but there are some potential side effects: an increased amount of iron, for example, can lead to constipation. We showcase both men’s and women’s formulas, but knowing the nutrients you lack in your diet is the best way to choose the right formula for you — and speaking with your doctor is the best way to determine those gaps.
Our Picks for the Best Multivitamin
Our Top Pick for Women
MegaFood Women’s One DailyThe nutrients in these multivitamins are sourced from real foods — which also ups their price tag.
One big reason these multivitamins went to the top of our list: In an industry filled with misdirection and misinformation, MegaFood is a beacon of transparency. Its supplements are certified as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) with NSF International, which assures “the product produced has the identity, strength, composition, quality, and purity that it is represented to possess,” and MegaFood adheres to ISO 9001 standards, meaning its labs comply with the highest standards of quality assurance and testing.
Those certifications alone are more than enough to stand out from the crowd, but it doesn’t stop there. MegaFood provides links to the farmers who supply the food it derives nutrients from. It’s certified vegan, gluten-free, and non-GMO. It’s herb- and pesticide-free. And its New Hampshire facilities even have an extensive network of cameras so you can personally watch its lab employees in action. The company is so keen to show what it’s all about, it coined it’s own slogan: Big T Transparency.
Food-Based Benefits?Advocates say they’re better because they contain fewer chemicals and are derived from real foods. But critics argue synthetic nutrients have a more reliable shelf life. What does the science say? “No one knows for sure,” said Foroutan. “The research is not there.”
Beyond Big T, MegaFood has another huge distinction: its multivitamins’ nutrients are derived exclusively from fruits, vegetables, and grains, meaning the vitamin A within is extracted from carrots; the vitamin C comes from organic oranges; and the vitamin K was once inside a cabbage. Many other nutrients, including the iron in the women’s multivitamin and the vitamin B12 in both blends, were derived from a yeast known as “saccharomyces cerevisiae,” a natural ingredient commonly used in brewing and baking. While the jury is still out on the tangible benefits of food-based supplements, they are must-haves for plenty of consumers, and MegaFood delivers.
Another thing we love about these multivitamins is the super-short list of inactive fillers. There are just three ingredients used to bind the tablet together, and all are found in nature: plant cellulose, vegetable lubricant, and the chemical compound silica (basically, sand). An inactive ingredient list this short is a rarity in the supplement world, and that helped push these multivitamins to the top of our pile. (To compare, Kirkland Signature has 13.)
Our Top Pick for Men
MegaFood Multi for MenFormulated for men — notably, there's no calcium, iron, or magnesium.
Across both formulas, MegaFood boasts a nice balance of ingredients. Of the 27 nutrients the body needs, Multi for Men is purposefully missing iron, calcium, and magnesium — and while it does contain potassium, it has only a negligible amount. Women’s One Daily contains all 27, although it also contains barely any potassium.
What are the other big differences between the men’s and women’s blends?
There are slight variations in some nutrient levels, and the women’s blend contains a suite of 16 herbal additives, including nettle leaf and dandelion root. More notably, the women’s multivitamin contains 9 milligrams of iron, since premenopausal women need more iron than men or postmenopausal women. Finally, the women’s multivitamin requires just one tablet per day, but the mens requires two.
A comparison of the nutritional info for MegaFood Multi for Men (left) and MegaFood Women’s One Daily (right). Click to enlarge.
MegaFood also makes versions of these multivitamins targeted for both men and women who are over 55, which have slightly varied formulas. The MegaFood Multi for Women 55+ doesn’t contain iron and the MegaFood Multi for Men 55+ contains pumpkin seed extract, which MegaFood claims supports a healthy prostate (the science is promising, but scant).
There is one clear downside to MegaFood multivitamins: They’ll cost you. The blend targeted at women costs around 68 cents per serving (one tablet) and the men’s blend costs a steep 90 cents per serving (two tablets). If you’re looking for a more affordable option, keep reading.
Our Pick for Best Value
Kirkland Signature Daily MultiA great roster of nutrients, third-party certifications, and only 2 cents per serving.
If you’re just looking for a non-gendered, adult multivitamin, you can’t get a much better bargain than the synthetic Kirkland Signature Daily Multi from Costco. It contains all 27 wishlist nutrients, though it only has 80 milligrams of potassium — about 2 percent of the recommended daily value. Unlike MegaFood, the nutrients in these multivitamins are synthetic, meaning they’re created in a lab instead of extracted from a carrot or a head of broccoli. (This may make some people squeamish, but there’s no evidence that synthetics are better or worse than naturally sourced vitamins.)
The Kirkland Signature Daily Multi is USP-certified and received a 66 out of 100 grade from Labdoor, earning high marks for value and purity, but a few red flags for label claim variance. The worst offense was folic acid levels at 31 percent above the label claim. Again, this isn’t a dangerous level — but it shows some inconsistencies in formulation. And one last caveat: This vitamin contains 18 milligrams of iron. That’s 100% of the RDA for premenopausal women, but exceeds the 8 milligram RDA for postmenopausal women and men. Too much iron can cause constipation, but the National Institute of Health guidelines point out an 18 milligram dosage is common in multivitamins and only warn against acute intakes of more than 20 milligrams.
Nutritional info for Kirkland Signature Daily Multi. Click to enlarge.
Our Top Pick for Kids
Rainbow Light Kids One MultiStars Food-Based MultivitaminA food-based, child-friendly formula from a well-regarded brand.
Most experts recommend that children, like adults, get their nutrients from food whenever possible. But if your kids balk at carrots and broccoli, sometimes multivitamins are the simplest way to cover diet deficiencies. Because kids need lower doses of most nutrients than adults, however, it’s important to choose a formula specifically for children.
After sorting through the options, we recommend Rainbow Light Kid's One MultiStars. Foroutan recommended Rainbow Light as a “really good quality” brand, and after looking through the ingredient list, we agree. Like our top adult picks, this is a food-based multivitamin. It contains kid-friendly doses of a wide range of necessary nutrients — even potassium, important for children and adults, but absent in many formulas — and it’s free of fillers and artificial dyes. It does include sweeteners (in the form of sucrose and dextrose), but this comes with the territory: We couldn’t find a single children’s multivitamin that didn’t contain sweeteners of some sort. And if you want your child to willingly eat their multivitamin, that’s probably just as well. The tablets themselves are crunchy and star-shaped, with a surprisingly tasty “fruit punch” flavor that comes from natural orange, cherry, and pineapple flavor. The supplement is intended for children of all ages, and a bottle of 30 tablets retails for around $9.
Our Top Pick for Seniors
Kirkland Signature™ Adults 50+ Mature MultiAn affordable synthetic option that meets the dietary needs of seniors.
Adults age 50 and older have slightly different nutritional needs than those in the 18-49 age bracket. Seniors tend to absorb less B12 as they age, with the Mayo Clinic recommendingsupplementation to maintain healthy B12 levels. Seniors also typically require higher doses of vitamin D to maintain bone health. Multivitamins designed for older adults can help cover these needs.
Among seniors’ multivitamins, we like Kirkland Signature Adults 50+ Mature Multi. Like our other adult picks, it contains a wide range of important nutrients — with senior-friendly doses of vitamins B12 and D. The serving size is just one pill per day, and it’s also an affordable option: A bottle of 400 pills retails for about $13, or $0.03 per dose.
If you’re looking for a food-based supplement, MegaFood also makes multivitamins for men and women over 55. These contain nutrients similar to Kirkland Signature, with a few variations: You get slightly less vitamin B12 — and the Multi for Women 55+ omits iron, while the Multi for Men 55+ contains pumpkin seed extract, which MegaFood claims supports a healthy prostate (the science is promising but scant). But be warned that these options are pricier: 60 tablets will run you $25, and the recommended serving is two tablets daily.
Other Multivitamins to Consider
Another Good Synthetic
Nature Made Multi for HerA balanced formula with a slew of third-party certifications — and because its a synthetic, it's much cheaper than MegaFood.
Nature Made’s multivitamins are another good choice for anyone looking for a well-rounded daily tablet that has a third-party stamp of approval. Both the men’s and women’s blends are verified by USP to ensure label accuracy, and the Nature Made Multi for Her was one of 70 tested and approved by ConsumerLab. Both the men’s and women’s formulas earned a 72 out of 100 ranking from Labdoor: Each earned high marks for purity, but also showed some ingredient inconsistencies. (Among other variations, the women’s tablet contained 51 percent more vitamin C than the label claimed, and the men’s tablet contained 175 percent more vitamin B6 than reported. These aren’t dangerous levels or ingredients, but they do indicate a little less precision with formulations.)
Nature Made Multi for HimA similar formula to the women's blend, only with no iron and extra vitamin B12.
Despite its name, Nature Made is synthetic. It’s cheaper than the MegaFood multivitamins, but more than the Kirkland Signature: The women’s Nature Made multi costs 11 cents per one-tablet serving, and the men’s multi costs 10 cents for the same. On the downside, it has more extraneous fillers and binders than the MegaFood options, and contains the artificial sweetener maltodextrin. Neither MegaFood nor Kirkland Signature contain maltodextrin. Regardless, both Nature Made formulas contain 26 of the 27 nutrients deemed essential by the FDA; only potassium is missing.
The difference between the men’s multi and the women’s is minor. The tablet formulated for men doesn’t contain iron and has a little less calcium (162 milligrams compared to 250 milligrams). It also contains three times as much vitamin B12, which feeds neurological function and the formation of red blood cells.
A comparison of the nutritional info for Nature Made Multi for Her (left) and Nature Made Multi for Him (right). Click to enlarge.
The 26 runners-up
Did You Know?
Most of those “percent daily value” numbers you see on the labels are still based on nutrition advice from 1968.
The FDA released new “daily value” recommendations in July of 2016, but supplement manufacturers won’t update formulas and labels for years: Companies with more than $10 million in annual sales have until 2018, and those with less have until 2019.
Typical Nutrients and Recommended Amounts
The new guidelines increase the recommended levels of some nutrients such as calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin D. (Calcium levels are now 1,000 micrograms for adults; vitamin C is at 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women; and vitamin D is at 600 IU.) But for now, looking at the bottle label (including our top picks) usually means you’re time traveling back to the Johnson administration.
How much does this matter? Again, it depends on your nutritional deficiencies. Like Sharon Palmer said, no one multivitamin is going to have 100 percent of what you need, so your best bet is to know where you’re lacking and find a supplement that’s stacked in your favor.
With vitamins, more isn’t necessarily better.
Perhaps more important than scouring daily recommended values is keeping an eye on recommended upper limits. ConsumerLabs has a detailed chart that compares recommended daily values with upper limits, but in general, it’s not a good idea to consume excessive doses of any one vitamin or nutrient.
Upper limits for any vitamin vary widely: over twice the recommended amount of Vitamin A is dangerous, but you can have up to 26 times the recommended daily amount of Vitamin C without experiencing any ill effects.
Price said her research shows a multivitamin probably won’t contain a dangerous amount of vitamins or minerals on its own — and none of our top picks exceed recommended upper limits for any ingredient. But she said taking a multivitamin while supplementing with other vitamins or while consuming fortified foods or beverages could lead to a “superdose” — a vitamin dosage so far over the recommended amount it can lead to problems.
For kids, superdoses can be fatal. Warnings to keep multivitamins containing iron out of children’s reach are there for a reason: Accidental iron consumption is a leading cause of poisoning deaths in children younger than 6. Gummy vitamins can be especially dangerous for kids, since they resemble candy or fruit snacks.
And remember: Most people probably don't need a multivitamin at all.
In our research for the best multivitamin, we kept running into the same question: Do most Americans even need to take a multivitamin?
When we called Dr. Edgar Miller, a professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, he told us he doesn’t recommend that his patients take multivitamins, since several studies have indicated they might do more harm than good: Research has shown high doses of vitamin A seemed to increase the risk of lung cancer, and another study of vitamin E’s effect on prostate cancer was called off after those taking the supplements showed higher cancer rates.
“I hate to advocate for any multivitamin, really. Just getting your vitamins from food is better.”
Dr. Edgar MillerProfessor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University of Medicine
Even in some cases of nutrient deficiency, a multivitamin might be overkill, Palmer adds. “For most people, they may not be lacking in every single essential vitamin and mineral — it may be just one or two,” she told us. “For example, someone at risk for osteoporosis may want to take calcium; someone battling iron anemia may want to take iron; and a vegetarian may want to take B12.”
Pregnant women, Miller says, are the exception. It’s widely agreed that pregnant women should take a supplement that includes folic acid to support the developing fetal nervous system. (Check out our review on the best prenatal vitamins if you’re expecting.)
Our Top Pick for Women
Keep a food journal for a week. Track everything fueling your body. If your diet lacks nutrients or seems especially imbalanced, try to change it. All four of our experts agree that food is hands-down the best way to consume vitamins and minerals.
Talk to your doctor. If you still suspect your diet is lacking, or if you can’t change what you eat due to dietary restrictions, meet with your doctor to discuss taking a multivitamin. He or she may order a blood test to detect nutritional deficiencies, or make recommendations about dietary modifications.
Get your vitamin D outside. Most vitamins can be found in food, but vitamin D remains a notable exception: Your body endogenously synthesizes vitamin D when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit your skin. Our picks contain vitamin D, but as always, vitamins are best absorbed from natural sources.
To learn more about this review and other helpful reviews, you can go to this website http://www.reviews.com/best-multivitamin/
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The weather is turning and the days have been getting shorter since the summer solstice on June 21. For 2017, the end of daylight-saving time will fall on Sunday. Nov. 5, in the United States and Canada, we will set our clocks back an hour.
The good news is that you will get a “bonus hour” of overall sleep and a “bonus hour” of light in the morning, so waking up will definitely be easier. In the evening, it will be darker one hour earlier, so often the day feels really short. You will find yourself wanting to “get cozy” and you and the kids will likely get drowsy earlier—and therefore bedtime will hopefully be easier.
To get ready, see my two strategies for the fall time change for children 6 months-5 yrs of age. Please know it can take up to 2 weeks for a child to make the transition to the new time change, so be patient and mindful of your child’s sleepy cues.
Be proactive and begin making changes to your routine 3-7 days prior to the time change (babies 6mo.-5yrs). This option is best for children that tend to be early risers or children that tend to be sensitive to schedule changes. These children usually benefit from gradually changing their schedule on the days leading up to the time change.
How to do it:
· Start putting your child to bed 10-15 minutes later than his or her normal naptime or bedtime and of course, make similar changes to the nap schedule.
· Every other day/night, try to “bump up” naptime/bedtime by 10-15 minutes. Do this until the night of the time change.
· The goal is to complete shifting your child’s bedtime schedule up by an hour by the time the clock changes. For example: your child’s normal nap time is 8:45am, bump it to 9am and do this for 2 days and then, bump to 9:15am for 2 days and so on. If you would rather “work” the bedtime angle than if bedtime is normally 7pm. During the days leading up to the time change, push bedtime to 7:15, 7:30, 7:45, 8pm…then when the time change happens, the 8pm bedtime will “FALL BACK” to 7pm and your child will already be in the mode for the new bedtime.
· If you try this method and your child starts waking before 6am, than STOP and go back to your old schedule. You will need to adjust to new time change in the “Just in time” method.
Use the “Just in Time” option: Sync with new clock times on November 5, 2017. If you don’t have the time or inclination to plan ahead, then you can simply respond to your child’s needs once the time change has happened. This means that all naps, meals and bedtime will automatically switch to the new time. This might also mean your child may wake earlier in the morning for the first week or so, but soon things will normalize.
How to do it:
· If your child starts to wake before 6am, (which is considered early) than it is imperative that you attend to this early rising or else it will persist.
· If you experience early rising, go to your child’s room, remind him or her it is still time for sleeping and try to soothe him or her back to sleep. (can use a tot clock for children 2.5 yrs of age and older)
· If the child does not go back to sleep, then use this strategy to make it “morning:” keep the room dark until 6am, then exit the room for 10-20 seconds, then re-enter the room and turn on the lights and open shades and then get your child out of bed.
· In this way, you will not be reinforcing early rising and eventually your child’s circadian rhythm will get back on track. If you have ongoing issues with early rising after 10-14 days after the time change, then I highly recommend reading my post on early rising (http://www.blissfulbabysleepcoaching.com/blog/2016/10/5/why-does-my-child-wakes-before-6am-every-daytips-to-tackle-early-rising
· In either case, it is important for children to get their daily dose of Vitamin D with morning light exposure. Turn on the lights, open your shades and, most importantly, try to give your child morning sunlight for at least 20-30 minutes a day during that first 7-10 days of the time change. This will help to reset your child’s circadian rhythm.
It’s also important to protect your sleep! Here are my time change tips for adults:
Since you are gaining an hour of sleep, it is often easier just to go to sleep at your normal time on Saturday night and then allow yourself to sleep in on Sunday morning. Then for the first couple of days, please know that your body will be busy regulating to the new time change, so light exposure in the morning will really help your body adjust.
Like jet lag, time changes take about a week to resolve and so it is wise to be patient and try to adhere to a flexible schedule and you will begin to see it all normalize. Happy Fall!!
If after 2-3 weeks, you are still experiencing difficulties, than it might be time for a “time change tune-up” Mini-Sleep-Consultation. I am now offering 15-60 minute “mini consults” to address immediate sleep concerns. Please visit my Services page to buy 15 increments of time to brainstorm and find solutions to your sleep concerns. http://www.blissfulbabysleepcoaching.com/coaching-services/
It’s that time again: the “Spring Forward” 2017 Time change. In the US, we will turn our clocks ahead one hour this weekend at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday, March 12th, 2017. If you are in Europe, Daylight Saving Time will begin on March 26th, 2017.
I am looking forward to the extra daylight and a dose of Vitamin D from the sunshine. As with all time changes, the family shouldbe prepared and expect some sleep disruptions and have tips and strategies on how to tackle it all.
If you employ these tips, it will be easier for your to support your little ones through their own transition
Tips for Parents:
- Eliminate all caffeine after 1:30 p.m. this week in order to make it easier to go to bed earlier.
- If possible, also avoid alcohol this weekend, which negatively affects sleep.
- Go to bed 15 minutes earlier than usual on the Thursday 3/9/17
- On Friday 3/10/17 go to bed 30 minutes earlier than usual.
- On Saturday try to go to bed 45 minutes earlier than your usual bedtime (notice a pattern?).
This time change can often be very difficult for children. After all, imagine being used to a 7pm bedtime and now it’s been moved to what your body feels is 6pm!.
Be patient as it does take the body 7-9 days for the natural circadian rhythm to get back on track.
To make the transition easier, I have outlined some tips to help your baby or toddler make a gentle change. Don’t worry. There are a couple of ways to tackle this transition and you can choose the one that suits your style and your child’s needs the best.
· Before the time change…be diligent that your child is getting adequate naps so that they aren’t overtired.
· Be prepared for your baby’s bedtime to feel earlier, since it actually is earlier. Remember, we’re jumping ahead a full hour, so what used to be 6:00 p.m. is now 7:00 p.m. (but it will still feel like 6:00 p.m. to your baby).
· Exposure to morning light can help the body “reset” the circadian rhythm. If it’s too cold, open the windows and let in some natural light. Try to get at least thirty minutes of sunlight first thing in the morning for that initial week to help your body tune into the time change.
I recommend that you choose between two transition methods for Daylight Savings Time.
Transition Method 1: Pretend that Nothing Has Changed.
· Best Method for Families with children with “early rising” tendencies (up before 6am)
· Best Method for busy Parents who already feel “rushed” at bedtime.
If you have a child that actually wakes up before 6am, than this may be the right method for you. This method is probably the easiest for most families, as you will follow your daily routine according to the clock, but everything will be pushed ahead one hour.
If you choose this method do the following:
· Move your clock ahead an hour on Saturday night, and proceed with your normal day Sunday.
o Note: be aware that following this “do nothing approach” means your child will lose an hour, which has the potential to create a struggle at bedtime, because bedtime will be a full hour earlier than it was last night.
· Because your baby or toddler is not aware that the time has changed, they will wake up at their normal time (hopefully), but instead of 6:00 a.m., it will be 7:00 a.m. (see what I mean about solving that pesky early rising issue?).
o However, don't let your child sleep past 7:30 or 8am or else bedtime will be harder.
· Proceed with your normal day, and be sure that your meals and naps, and bedtime are at the appropriate time (you may have to watch the clock).
Remember that your baby will be going to bed at their “regular time”. For example, if your baby is used to a 7:00 p.m. bedtime, put them to bed at the NEW 7:00 p.m. (which was previously 6:00 p.m.). It is very possible that meals and naps will fall into place naturally with this method, but be prepared that your child may not actually be tired at bedtime yet. Remember, they don’t understand why they’ve lost an hour, and it’s suddenly still light out at bedtime, so you may have to be a bit flexible or now might be the time to install those room darkening shades.
This method of adjustment seldom takes more than a week!
Transition Method 2: Make DAILY adjustments
· Best for families that know the time change will be hard on their kiddo
· Best for families who feel more secure when they “plan in advance”
- About 5-7 days before the time change, begin putting your child to bed 10-20 minutes earlier, moving the time back every day or few days until you reach a full hour. So, if your child has a 7:00 p.m. bedtime, you want to begin with bedtime at 6:40 p.m. ,then 6:20 p.m., then 6:00 p.m.
- Be consistent as possible with your baby’s food and sleep schedule. This means that you need to shift all meals, snacks, and naps a half hour earlier as well.
- Watch the clock to stay on the new schedule of 30 minutes earlier.
- Don’t forget to wake your child a bit earlier to help with this transition schedule.
- After about a week, your child should be back at their 7:00 p.m. bedtime.
- Adjust all meals, snacks, and naps to fit the “new” schedule on the same day that you shift to your child’s new, fully-adjusted bedtime.
Here is an example: If your baby or toddler’s bedtime is 7 pm, it will look like this:
- Tuesday 3/7/17 : 6:50 pm bedtime
- Wednesday 3/8/17 : 6:40 pm bedtime
- Thursday 3/9/17: 6:30 pm bedtime
- Friday: 3/10/17 6:20 pm bedtime
- Saturday 3/11/17: 6:10 pm bedtime
- Sunday 3/12/17: 7 pm bedtime (new time—old time will be 6 pm)
Keep in mind that the goal is to be back to your baby’s normal bedtime (and routine) in just a few days (some children may take a bit longer, so don’t fret if your child takes a week or so).
Whichever method you choose, it’s important to remember that your baby’s internal clock is used to Standard Time. You may need to revert to some sleep training methods for a few days to help ease the time change. “Springing forward” also means that nights are shorter, which may be an issue for some children who are used to dark winter nights. Remember, every child is different, and your little one will adjust, but don’t fret if it’s not overnight (some toddlers can take a few weeks to adjust!). Prepare for the transition to take a few days, and watch for those sleep cues that will tell you when your child is tired and ready to sleep!
Overview On How To Handle Daylight Saving Time:
· Decide which Daylight Savings sleep transition method you want to use to help your child adjust.
· Take your baby’s internal clock into account and watch for sleepy cues.
· Check to see if light is an issue, and consider purchasing room-darkening shades for bedtime, but also expose them to morning light in that first week to “reset” their internal clock.
· Most importantly, be flexible and patient. A time change is often hard on kids and adults alike. Readjustment can take about 5-7 days. Just be mindful of the clock and your schedule.
· Keep evening plans calm and watch for sleepy cues. Dim the lights in house and avoid screen-time that can be too stimulating.
· If needed, use your preferred sleep training method to help encourage sleep and help your baby get the rest he/she needs.